For centuries, international politics was considered as an arena of the states. However, with the rise of the
free-market economy, globalisation, international institutions and technology, many non-state actors such as
international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) started sharing the power corridors along with the
states. Contemporary academic literature cites many examples where INGOs has played important roles in
decision-making processes. The flow of development aid from developed countries to the developing countries
through INGOs has enhanced their role in international development. Similarly, many developing countries
started outsourcing social services such as health and education to INGOs. International laws, on one hand,
protect INGOs to mobilise additional financial resources from developed states. INGOs contributed to
humanitarian diplomacy especially in climate change and banning landmines. INGOs also face some criticism
in terms of poor accountability and legitimacy. Southern countries sometimes perceive INGOs as carriers and
promoters of western liberal agenda.
1-Khalid Saifullah PhD Scholar, Department of International Relations, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Syed Imran Haider Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Azhar Waqar PhD Scholar, Department of International Relations, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan.
INGOs, International Development, International Politics, Social Development.