How to Cite
Role of Parental Income and its Implications for Unemployed Educated Youth: A Case Study of Turbatkech, Balouchistan
Parental household income plays an essential role in the personality development and well-being of its members. The study aims to discover the perception of unemployed educated youth towards the tradition of cousin marriages. The study was conducted in Turbatkech, the southern part of Balochistan, by employing qualitative research design. Data for this purpose was collected through qualitative techniques from 30 unemployed educated young adults who were selected through purposive sampling. Economic dependency and financial constraints are considered the key driving forces among unemployed educated youth that persuade them to prefer consanguinity. Furthermore, the caste system within the society induces individuals to prefer their own blood while making spouse selection. The present study illustrates the lack of economic independence among educated youth. In order to bring a positive behavioral change among youth what matters the most is to give them socio-economic independence and alternatives other than marrying them off.
Economy, Tradition, Society, Education, Unemployed, Cousin Marriage.
This paper aims to analyze the phenomena of cousin in the context of parental income. The notion of cousin marriage implies a married state where both husband and wife belong to the same family. Hartmann (2012) asserted that the role of parental household income has wide influence on children’s personality and behavior. As in the developed world, the role of parental household income and its implications are less significant as compared to the developing world. According to Estola, Farguhar and Puroila (2014), parental income theorizes as a significant tool in the process of children’s wellbeing and its decision. Research suggests that marriage preferences of youth differ based on the household income and poverty.
Children’s wellbeing as observed in Asian countries reflects that children belonging to poor families are widely affected due to unviability of resources (Roelen & Gassmann, 2014). Similarly, Bray and Kwok (2003) studied diverse cases from different countries ranging from Egypt to Taiwan. These studies conclude that due to the unavailability of resources and poor family status widely affected youth preferences and their wellbeing in the sphere of the marriage institution. Tilak (2002) elaborated the higher income earners and highly qualified parents considered education as a perfect way of wellbeing among youth. In addition, the access to countless rights and opportunities that are usually linked with social issues such as low income, poor skills lacking appropriate living standards, is lessened in the process of depriving in the social process. In the developing world like Pakistan, only three major PDHS (Pakistan Demographic Health Survey) were conducted in various years such as 1990-91, 2006-07 and 2012-13. These reports illustrated the changing patterns over the attitude of individuals towards inter-family marriages. It also revealed that with passage of time individual’s behavior in Pakistan have changed. The 1990-91 report stated 68% prevalence of inter-family marriages in contrary at 2006-07 data shown 65% popularity of inter-family marriages whereas, the data of 2012-13 showed 54% occurrence of inter-familial marriages in all over Pakistan. (Kamal, Khan & Numan 2015).
In Balochistan, the pattern of urbanization and modernization is in initial stages. The educated youth of Baluchistan still prefer inter-family marriages. They are more ethnocentric of their cultural beliefs and ideology. They perceive inter-family marriages as a resilient social bond to preserve their identity and values (Kakar, 2017). The current study was conducted to explore how parental household income influences the unemployed educated youth? What are the motivational factors molding the behavior of parents’ in the light of marriage preferences among their unemployed educated youth?
Bronfenbrenner (1979) demonstrated human ecological theory can be known as a social process by which in the realm of an individual’s development concerned within its social context. This theory retains a point of view of how an individual pursue its development contained by interaction patterns with its social system. Additionally, it has a multi-layer social system which concentrate on societal sceneries. These sceneries are composed of interaction patterns.
However, at micro-level, child development is linked with family and peer groups how these entities interact with children and their interaction patterns play a wide role in the development of children. Secondly, in the mezzo level found the role of social institutions (family, economic, religion, education and politics) and focused these institutions’ interaction patterns associated with development.
Afterward, at the level of exo-system deals with linkages and social settings of individual with its surrounding social relations and social groups. In this situation, social relations interaction patterns faced distractions. Likewise, parents became unable to develop an active role in interaction with children.
Furthermore, in forth landscape of human ecological theory, reflected as macro level which demonstrated the aspects development regarding social mapping. It ensures influence and effects on development and progress in sphere of socio-economic status, level of poverty and ethnicity. These social indicators and their due processes have close impressions upon an individual’s development.
Model of Social Ecological Theory
Application of Theory
The above theoretical discussion presents ensuing and magnificent scopes of social dispossession and how social structure likewise, family, economic and education affect individual preferences and processes in its social context. In the light of data where the parental household incomes have implications upon their children preferences of marriages furthermore, multiple landscapes effects and influences the youth tendencies of wellbeing in realm of marriage preferences. Nevertheless, the theorist presents three significance notions that how parental household income in domain of its social context effecting the individual preferences. The researcher noted three landscapes which overcome the preferences of unemployed educated youth. Firstly, measure of exclusion, in the process of financial constrains the parents exclude their children preferences. Secondly, the measure of authoritative, in the process of cousin marriages among unemployed educated youth bound to accept their parental decision because in the landscape of exo-system the societal pressure induce the individual to act accordingly. Thirdly, the measures of instrumental, in this process the unemployed educated youth accept their parent’s preferences of marriage have not their live hood earning and they are dependent upon parents earning in this way unemployed educated youth compromise of their preferences particularly, in regard of marriage. The notion of low-income household and poor skills of parents create hindrances for their youth satisfaction in domain of marriages. The approach argues that how different societal landscapes affecting the preferences of unemployed educated youth is dependent upon external forces such as income house in process of marriage preferences and it hold to retain a firm outlook to associate with the phenomena of economic behavior.
This empirical research is based upon qualitative research method. The study investigated the role of parental
income and its implication for marriage preferences of unemployed educated youth. The universe of the study was Turbatkech, locate in southern part of Balouchistan (a province in Pakistan). Target population of research was unemployed educated youth with the background of middle range income families. The sample size of research was 30unmarried unemployed educated youth. The interview guide schedule was incorporated in the process of research during data collection. Purposive sampling technique was used in the research process by way of using purposive sampling this technique has considered effective for qualitative for studies. The MXQD software was used for data analysis and findings themes were generated accordingly. The researcher expands the study on wider level and each and every research ethics was followed during the study.
It generally appears that family politics play an essential role in process of decision making. The main decisions in household widely taken by women particularly in domain of inter familial marriages to influence men’s behavior and attitude.
Educated youth from Turbatkech highlights the substantial empowerment of women in the domain of spouse selection and towards arranging consanguineal marriages. One of the male respondents aged 26 years holding M.Phil. degree discussed his view regarding household women’s politics to reinforce cousin marriages as, “women have significant position in the process of decision-making regarding spouse selection and exercise significant authority to influence traditional male dominancy.
Women use various expressive and emotional tactics to convince their family members to practice inter family marriage. One of the female respondents aged 27 holding M.Phil. degree explained her views with the help of Baloch cultural Proverb called Bathal. She said,
“Bach heasaragu Raj heabedia
it is compulsory for family to marry his son within the family structure
Furthermore, in reinforcing the practice of cousin marriages women’s politics does plays an essential role while remaining behind the scenes. The husband only plays active role in front of public,but the main decision lies upon females.
Educationis considered as one of the most important social institution with regards to social change. It seems that education paves the way for social change in the society to break the chains of traditional or orthodox mentality among individuals to promote cost and benefit analysis among them. In this regard in Baloch society particularly, among educated youth from Turbatkech articulated whereas the pronounced effect of education in term of cost and benefit analysis and enunciates the pattern of cost and benefit analysis in process of inter family marriages which locally signifies such terms Har kas wathi cha gardzebdarhea means that (each individual has perfect its own social settings) a folklore usually used in Baloch society which signifies the value of local wisdom. One of female respondent aged 27 and holding M.Phil. degree explained views as
“Education provokes the cost and benefit analysis which is consider the important aspect of education (shareeaur Arabee) means goodness and badness in society. My parents seem that me to eve that as educated my skills and knowledge merely became helpful to support my family so in this process the means of cousin marriages has quite reasonable phenomena to hold and support my family in every walk of life”
The educated youth of Turbatkech have its own understandings regarding the process and role of education. In today’s world education promotes individualization rather than collectivism another side it also creates consciousness among parents’ preference of marriages. The male respondent aged 26 holding M.Phil. degree explained his view as
“Due to my education my parents insist me towards cousin marriage my parents seem that cost and benefit analysis among individuals in this regards my education strengthen our ties in domain of family integration and functionality.”
One of the important factors among educated youth overwhelmingly inclined towards cousin marriages is their economic dependency which causes increase in cousin marriages among educated youth. One of the male respondents’ aged 26 holding M.Phil degree explained as:
“Yes, I do consider that economic dependency upon parents compel individuals to marry within family. Those educated individuals who are still unemployed mostly prefer inter family or cousin marriage because they have no other choice to convince their parents regarding intra family marriages”
The educated youth in Turbatkech have its own understating regarding the notion of economic dependency in the light of marriage preferences. Individuals inclined towards cousin marriages because they are economically dependent on their parents. One of male respondent aged 26 years holding master degree explained as.
“hahaha Mni wade beshammarda kea zorreebaghairwathinakozagche
Who will own us for marriage rather our own cousins and secondly, I prefer cousin marriage because it is my parents’ choice”?
Societiesare stratified in various sections on the bases of race, wealth, income, education, occupation and social prestige or status. In society most of individuals want to retain their social status in various ways. In Bloch society particularly in Turbatkech Balochistan this sort of notion prevails among educated families convince their educated youth towards cousin marriages to preserve their caste. On the bases of caste, the prevalence of inter family marriages or cousin marriages is obvious fact among families in the study area. One of male respondent aged 26 years holding M.Phil. degree explained as;
“I belong to poor family and educated I prefer cousin marriage because our families considered cousin marriages as compared to non- cousin marriages because it patronizes to maintain our social positionality in the society”
The educated youth of Turbatkech have its own understanding regarding social stratification in Baloch society. Caste factor is most important factor in the process of social stratification in Baloch society particularly in Turbatkech the dominant class always prefers intra or non-cousin marriages rather to intra even one of the female respondents aged 27 years holding M.Phil. degree explained it views as
“Upper Class always prefers cousin marriages and the important factor that strengthens family marriages is caste factor which regulates the family. Preferring marriage within the caste enhances the chances of adaptability and acceptability in society”.
Family institution is a basic unit of social life which encompasses social and economic needs of an individual. Furthermore, in most of the society’s family formation is based on marriage. Marriage defined as a socially approved phenomenon, apparently a long term sexual and economic contract between male and female. (Furze et al. 2008) Moreover, cousin marriage can be defined as a social process whereby two individuals tied in wedlock who are related by same kin. Inter-familial marriage is a network which exists between two individuals who share the same biological family or family of the same origin. The family orientation between the couples is same. The phenomena of cousin marriage are a particular kind of endogamous marriage in which individuals have at least common ancestor. In other words, it is a wedlock situation that individuals share same set of great- grand parents. (Tischler 2011) furthermore, from the glance of reviewed literature the findings also support the above mention argument;Furthermore, the overall literature became support the stance that household income has direct association with unemployed educated youth preferences of marriage. As according to Loveluck ; Tilak andGrace et al, (2012, 2002, 2006) discussed the association of youth wellbeing in domain of material standards are widely associated with its preferences. However, the main focus of their work was about social status and inequality. Researchers also stated that family wellbeing is directly associated with socio economic status of family in society. It is also identified the healthy and socio-economic status, entails in the lower economic families. Thus, it is observed that the families who have maximum poverty rates, their youth preferences and wellbeing are affected. The findings of the research also support the stance that cousin marriages among educated youth are related with parental household income. It is generally recognized that the prevalence of marriage institution is viable practice in all over the societies in the world according to its various notions and functions. Marriage institution is the central core value of Baloch society. Such as Baloch local wisdom articulated the marriage institution importance in such a way that Sur zindywahid chez heachagardakjaknth. (Marriage is considered as evident part of life which tries to solidarity in the society). Most of the educated youth from Turbatkech who are even residing or living in different parts of Pakistan for the purpose of education perceives cousin marriage as practicable notion in realm of family sustainability. As in theoretical review Bronfenbrenner (1979) demonstrated that human ecological theory can be known as social process by which in realm of individual development concerned within its social context. It scopes of social dispossession and how social structure with its multiple landscapes effects and influences the educated youth marriage preferences. Nevertheless, the theorists present the significance notions of exclusions measures likewise, low income household and poor skills of parents that creates hindrances for unemployed youth. The rationale behind cousin marriage among parents is directly associated with the idea of wath ma wathi (We-feeling) rather than thana wathi (I-feeling).It means that the educated youth are more concerns towards their social and cultural values.
The researcher aimed to carry out sociological approach to evaluate and enquire the youth in Baloch societal perspective. The unemployed educated Youth have different experiences in the domain of their social the role of education, parental household income, social status and gender in process of marriage preferences. Furthermore, the pattern of cousin marriage is a matrimony practice whereas; both spouses are interrelated to same kinship lines. The unemployed educated youth of Turbatkech, have extensively concern with cousin marriage because the parental household income is driving force which inducing educated youth towards cousin marriages. The researcher articulated that the cousin marriages are related to confidentiality and minimization of chances the household politics. Those individuals who are not related to same kin or family structure the adjustment issues are evident among households. Furthermore, another side empirical evidence was observed that the parental household income mold to shape individual behavior towards cousin marriages. The parents inclined to arranging their educated youth marriage process with the family structure because the notion to pursuing cousin marriage signifies that inter family marriages aggravates the chances of family alliances within the family structure. Hence, the pattern of cousin marriages among unemployed educated youth are closely related with parental household income because the educated youth are financially relied upon parents.